Handbook of Ethics, Values and Technological Design

/Handbook of Ethics, Values and Technological Design
Handbook of Ethics, Values and Technological Design 2018-03-19T16:50:50+00:00

The Handbook of Ethics, Values and Technological Design has the follow to offer:

  • Aimed at a broad public, among them: ethicists, policy makers and designers themselves
  • Provides a detailed survey of how technological and institutional design must now reflect awareness of ethical factors
  • Addresses myriad aspects at the intersection of technology design and ethics
  • Collates an array of published material and offers a studied, practical introduction to the field
  • Enables designers to anticipate, prevent and resolve societal & ethical issues
  • Evaluates different application domains, including architecture and information technology

DDFV researchers edited the Handbook of Ethics, Values and Technological Design (published by Springer). A substantial part of the authors, prominent in their field, are also part of the Delft Design for Values Institute, which illustrates TU Delft’s internationally leading role in the field.

Chapters in the Handbook of Ethics, Values and Technological Design

Sources

Abstract

Value sensitive design (VSD) represents a pioneering endeavor to proactively consider human values throughout the process of technology design. The work is grounded by the belief that the products that we engage with strongly influence our lived experience and, in turn, our abilities to meet our aspirations. We, the authors of this piece, are members of the first cohort of scholars to receive doctoral training from the founders of VSD at the University of Washington. We do not claim to represent an officially authorized account of VSD from the University of Washington’s VSD lab. Rather, we present our informed opinions of what is compelling, provocative, and problematic about recent manifestations of VSD. We draw from contemporary case studies to argue for a condensed version of the VSD constellation of features. We also propose a set of heuristics crafted from the writings of the VSD lab, appropriations and critiques of VSD, and related scholarly work. We present these heuristics for those who wish to draw upon, refine, and improve values-oriented approaches in their endeavors and may or may not choose to follow the tenets of value sensitive design.

Keywords

Values, Human-computer interaction, Ethics, Stakeholders, Methodology

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Abstract

Participatory Design (PD) is a design methodology in which the future users of a design participate as co-designers in the design process. It is a value-centered design approach because of its commitment to the democratic and collective shaping of a better future. This chapter builds forth on the Scandinavian Participatory Design tradition. We discuss why the design process is as important as the final result, the product, or service. The creative application of Participatory Design methods facilitates a design process in which values emerge and become inscribed in a prototype. We present PD’s guiding principles: equalizing power relations, democratic practices, situation-based action, mutual learning, tools and techniques, and alternative visions about technology. In addition, we discuss some value practices and design methods informed by our PD projects in health care and the public sector. We maintain that Participatory Design increases the chance that the final result of a design process represents the values of the future users.

Keywords

Participatory Design guiding principles, Emergent values, Participatory Design methods

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Abstract

Technology assessment (TA) constitutes a scientific and societal response to problems at the interface between technology and society. It is a field that has arisen against the background of various experiences concerning the unintended and often undesirable side effects of science, technology, and societal technicization. This chapter provides an overview of the history, motivations, objectives, and present status of TA. Elements of the governance of technology are discussed in order to identify appropriate constellations where knowledge and orientation provided by TA could be used to improve decision making. There are three major branches of TA: TA as policy advice (e.g., to parliaments), TA in public debate (e.g., by participatory measures), and TA for shaping technology directly (e.g., by constructive technology assessment or by Leitbild assessment). In all of these branches, TA is considering relations between technology and values. In particular, insofar as TA is involved in processes of shaping technology directly, there is a close neighborhood with Design for Values.

Keywords

Ambivalence of technology, Side effects, Innovation, Risk, Technology conflicts, Policy advice

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Perspectives

Abstract

Designers are regularly confronted with conflicting values in design: different values select different design options as best. This contribution deals with how one can deal with such value conflicts in design for values. A characterization of value conflict in design is given, and the notion is compared with the notion of moral dilemmas. It is further argued that value conflicts in design entail a kind of multi-criteria decision problems to which Arrow’s impossibility theorem applies. This theorem says that there is no procedure to aggregate scores on individual criteria (values) into an overall score unless one is willing to violate one of more minimally reasonable conditions for any such an aggregation procedure. Six methods to deal with value conflicts (cost-benefit analysis, direct trade-offs, maximin, satisficing, judgment, and innovation) are discussed. Three of these avoid Arrow’s theorem by assuming a form of value commensurability, although they may be too informationally demanding and have other disadvantages as well. The other three are non-optimizing methods that do not result in one best solution and therefore do not entirely solve the value conflict, although they are a way forward in some respects. In conclusion, an approach that combines the several methods is proposed as a way to deal with cases of conflicting moral values in design and which avoids many of the disadvantages of the single methods.

Keywords

Design for values, Value conflict, Arrow’s impossibility theorem, Value commensurability, Trade-offs, Multi-criteria problems, Moral dilemmas, Value sensitive design

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Abstract

Engineering is increasingly of systems that are not only complex – in being multilayered – but also hybrid – in containing people as components. This chapter does not discuss the already well-researched safety concerns generated by this development with respect to operators, users, and bystanders but instead addresses values of relevance to the presence in such systems of operators as agents: values associated with what we can reasonably ask people to do and what we make people responsible for. From the perspective of design, systems containing people as components deviate in four ways from traditional systems consisting of all-hardware components.

  1. Such systems are not designed as a whole but gradually and modularly.
  2. They are typically delivered as incomplete because their operators have to be added by the client or owner during implementation; only operator roles are strictly speaking designed.
  3. Persons performing these roles become components of the system only partially; unlike hardware components their behavior continues to be monitored and controlled from a perspective external to the system.
  4. Operator roles are often explicitly conceived as being partially external, in that an operator’s task is ultimately to ensure that the system continues to function properly come what may.

These features lead to conflicts with the autonomy of operators as persons and the well-foundedness of assigning particular responsibilities to them. The difficulties described here should make us rethink whether traditional engineering approaches to system design are adequate for such hybrid systems.

Keywords

Sociotechnical system, System design, Operator, Responsibility, Autonomy

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Abstract

This chapter discusses a methodological problem that advocates of design for values have to face. In order to take into account moral values in designing technology, these values have to be operationalized or made measureable; otherwise it will not be possible to evaluate various design options with regard to these values. A comparison of the operationalization of values with the operationalization of physical concepts shows that certain conditions that enable the operationalization of physical concepts in objective measurement procedures are not fulfilled for the operationalization of values. The most significant difference is that physical concepts are embedded in networks of well-tested theories and operational procedures, which is not the case for moral values. We argue that because of this second-order value judgments play a crucial role in the operationalization of values and that these value judgments seriously undermine any claim that values may be measured in an objective way. The absence of objective measurement of values, however, does not imply that the operationalization and measurement of values in design is arbitrary. In our opinion technical codes and standards may play a major role in coming to a reasonable or justified consensus on how to operationalize and measure moral values in design.

Keywords

Design for values, Specification of values, Operationalization of values, Measuring moral values

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Abstract

In this chapter we demonstrate that contemporary design methodology provides methods for design for moral values. Subsequently, we explore the methodological challenges and problems that this brings to the table. First, we show that contemporary design methods are aimed at realizing values of users and society. These values are in general not moral ones yet do include in specific cases moral values. Second, we introduce a division between user-driven methods in which it are the users who introduce the values to be designed for and designer-driven methods in which the clients and designers are introducing these values. Third, we discuss two designer-driven design methods in detail for, respectively, design in general and social design in particular: the Vision in Product design method and the Social Implication Design method. Finally, we explore the challenges and problems of design for moral values with these and other design methods. We focus specifically on the designer who, once design is recognized as design for moral values, becomes responsible for the moral values the resulting products have. We argue that in this case the designer should make the moral values of products transparent to clients and users.

Keywords

Design methods, Design for moral values, Designer-driven design methods

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Abstract

The contributions to this handbook show that technology is not value neutral, as is often thought. In this chapter, we argue that the inherent value-ladenness of technology evokes positive and negative emotions of the people who encounter or use it, by touching upon their personal and moral values. These emotions enable people to make concrete practical and moral judgments and to act accordingly. In this chapter, it is therefore proposed that emotions of users and designers alike should not be marginalized as being irrational and irrelevant, but instead be embraced as valuable gateways to values. Emotions reveal those values that matter to our well-being given a particular design or technology, and they are an important source of moral knowledge by being crucial to our capacity of moral reflection. This chapter discusses six sources of emotions in human-technology interaction and proposes how an understanding of user emotions can support design processes. In addition, the chapter discusses how emotions can resolve the lack of moral considerations in traditional approaches that assess the desirability of technology. It is argued that emotions do this by opening the gateway to moral considerations, such as responsibility, autonomy, risk, justice, and equity. This means that moral emotions can – and should – play an important role in the development of technology and can be considered to be indicators of success and failure in value-driven design processes.

Keywords

Emotion, Design, Values, Risk, Well-being

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Abstract

Technology and the expansion of human capabilities are intimately related. This chapter discusses an influential philosophical framework that attaches central moral importance to human capabilities, namely, the so-called capability approach, and explains in which ways it has relevance for design. A distinction will be drawn between two different, although related, design applications of the capability approach. Firstly, in the “narrow” usage, the capability approach is seen as presenting a proper conceptualization of individual well-being, namely, in terms of the capabilities that a person has. The aim of design is then to contribute to the expansion of these capabilities, to which I refer as design for capabilities. I will discuss two challenges for design for capabilities, namely, an epistemological and an aggregation challenge. Secondly, in the “broad” usage, the capability approach is seen as a source of insight and inspiration for taking a broader range of values and concerns into account in design, most importantly agency and justice. From this perspective, so it is argued, strong parallels can be drawn with participatory design and universal design. In reality both the narrow and the broad usage of the capability approach in design should go hand in hand. The chapter ends with some reflections on the challenges ahead in making the philosophical literature on the capability approach accessible to and usable by designers.

Keywords

Agency, Justice, Well-being, Capability approach

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Abstract

Mediation is the claim that technologies have an impact on the way in which we perceive the world and on the way we act in it. Often this impact goes beyond human intentions: it can hardly be understood only in terms of “intentions of the user” or in terms of “intentions of the designer.” Mediation argues that technologies have “agency” themselves and then tries to explicate the way in which technological objects and human subjects form a complex relation and constitute each other. Designers should anticipate mediation effects and can use mediation to moralize technologies. However, questions can be asked about how far the moralizing of technologies is compatible with user autonomy.

Keywords

Autonomy, Mediation, Nudges, Persuasive technologies, Phenomenology, Verbeek

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Abstract

This chapter addresses societal implications of models and modeling in engineering design. The more standard question about well-known technical and epistemic modeling values, such as safety and validity, will be left to the standard literature. The sections “Introduction” and “Values in Modeling: Framing and Standard Views” discuss relevant societal norms and values and the ways in which they are model related. Additionally, standard points of view are discussed about the value-ladenness of models. The section “Value-Related Issues Emerging in Model Building and Use” shows various ways in which engineering models may turn out to have unforeseen societal consequences. An important way to avoid such consequences and deliberately model for values in a positive sense is to take models as special kinds of artifacts. This perspective enables modelers to apply designer methods and techniques and view a modeling problem as in need of an explicit list of design specifications. Doing so, modelers may apply forms of stakeholder analysis and participatory design. Additionally, they may apply well-known, hierarchical means-end techniques to explicate and operationalize the relevant values; doing so, they support discussions about them within and outside the design team. Finally, the model-as-artifact perspective stimulates modelers to produce technical documentation and user guides, which will decrease the negative effects of improper use. The chapter ends with a checklist of issues, which the documentation should cover if a modeling for values is taken seriously.

Keywords

Model, Value-ladenness, Instrumental and derivative values, Engineering, modeling, and societal and environmental values, Accountability, Affordance, Model as artifact, Modeling practices, Participatory design, value identification, and implementation, Value hierarchy, Model documentation

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Values

Abstract

If an organization is to be held accountable for its actions, the public need to know what happened. Organizations must therefore “open up” and provide evidence of performance to stakeholders, such as principals who have delegated tasks, employees, suppliers or clients, or regulators overseeing compliance. The social values of transparency – the tendency to be open in communication – and accountability – providing evidence of past actions – are crucial in this respect.

More and more aspects of the internal control systems, policies, and procedures to gather evidence of organizational performance are implemented by information systems. Business processes are executed and supported by software applications, which therefore effectively shape the behavior of the organization. Such applications are designed, unlike practices which generally grow. Therefore, it makes sense to take the core values of accountability and transparency explicitly into account during system development.

In this chapter we provide an account of the way in which transparency and accountability can be built into the design of business processes, internal controls, and specifically the software applications to support them. We propose to make trade-offs concerning core values explicit, using an approach called value-based argumentation. The approach is illustrated by a case study of the cooperation between providers of accounting software and the Dutch Tax and Customs Authority to develop a certificate, in order to improve the reliability of accounting software. Widespread adoption of the certificate is expected to stimulate accountability and indeed transparency in the retail sector.

Although the approach is developed and tested for designing software, the idea that trade-offs concerning core values can be made explicit by means of a critical dialogue is generic. We believe that any engineering discipline, like civil engineering, water management, or cyber security, could benefit from such a systematic approach to debating core values.

Keywords

Value sensitive design, Accountability, Transparency

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Abstract

In this chapter, we provide an overview of literature on the relation between technology and design and the values of democracy and justice. We first explore how philosophy has traditionally conceptualized democracy and justice. We then examine general philosophical theories and arguments about this relation, dealing with the conception of technology as being “value-free” as well as with pessimistic and more optimistic assessments with regard to technology’s potential for advancing democracy and justice. Next, we turn to three concrete design methods that seek to promote democracy and justice in the design process, namely, participatory design, technology assessment, and value-sensitive design. Finally, we examine two cases of technology influencing democracy and justice: one regarding the relation between energy technology and democracy and one regarding the use of social media during the Arab Spring. We conclude that many pessimists focus on the “technological mind-set” as a problem that undermines democracy and justice; that in the absence of general design guidelines for democracy and justice, a focus on democracy and justice in the design process seems all the more important; and that design methods tend to include values rather than theories of democracy and justice, which suggests that a further integration of philosophy and the design sciences could create added value for both disciplines.

Keywords

Democracy, Equality, Justice, Non-neutrality of technology, Participatory design

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Abstract

This chapter studies how and to what extent it is possible to design for well-being. Well-being is rarely considered in the design literature and is rarely linked to technology and design in philosophy and the social sciences. A few approaches to design for well-being have recently materialized, however, including Emotional Design, capability approaches, positive psychology approaches, and Life-Based Design. In this chapter, the notion of well-being will first be clarified and contemporary theories of and approaches to well-being will be reviewed. Next, theoretical and methodological issues in design for well-being will be discussed that must be accounted for in any successful approach. This will be followed by a review of the above mentioned four approaches to design for well-being. The chapter will conclude by considering open issues and future work in the development of design approaches for well-being.

Keywords

Well-being, Design, Happiness, Emotional design, Positive psychology

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Abstract

There is an increasing awareness that many everyday products and services present challenges and difficulties to potential users. These difficulties may arise because the products and services have not been designed to allow for the full range of functional capabilities of the users who wish to use them. Medical conditions, accidents, ageing, or genetic predisposition means that most people will at some point experience functional impairments that make everyday products and services difficult to use. This chapter aims to introduce readers to the needs of the full range of users and provide an introduction to how they can develop more inclusive products and services. It addresses the principal approaches and tools to designing for inclusivity as well as the underlying rationale for why companies and designers need to consider this important set of users.

Keywords

Universal design, Inclusive design, User-centered design, Disability, Ageing, Impairments

Abstract

This chapter elaborates on design for the value of presence. As digital technologies have made it possible for us to connect to each other at a speed and scale that is unprecedented, presence is acquiring many new stances. The distinctions between being there (in virtual worlds), being here (making the being there available here), and the merging realities of these two are essential to the notion of presence. Understanding the essence of presence is the focus of current presence research to which many disciplines contribute, including computer science, artificial intelligence, artistic research, social science, and neurobiology.

The definition of presence used in this chapter is “steering towards well-being and survival,” and this definition introduces a neurobiological perspective on presence fundamental to the approach on which this chapter focuses. This perspective recognizes the choices and trade-offs involved in presence design. Presence design is a meta-design, which creates the context for human experience to emerge. Presence as a value for design can be a design requirement, a factor of analysis, and a key value in a process of Design for Values.

This chapter discusses a number of analytical and design frameworks for constructing and deconstructing presence design. Acknowledging that presence is a fuzzy concept and that a variety of open issues can be identified, presence as a value for design is fundamental for human beings to accept responsibility in complex environments. Further research will need to address how we, as human beings, change and how our sense of presence changes, as a result of living in a network society with ubiquitous technology and all pervasive media being part of our day-to-day lives.

Keywords

Presence, Value, Design, Trust, Experience, Networks

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Abstract

In a time where more and more information about people is collected, especially in the digital domain, the right to be left alone and to be free of surveillance, i.e., privacy, is no longer as self-evident as it once was. Therefore, it is important that new systems are designed with privacy in mind. This chapter explores the notion of privacy and how to design “privacy-preserving” systems: systems that are designed with privacy for the end users in mind. Several design approaches that address this issue, such as “Privacy by Design,” “Value Sensitive Design,” and “Privacy Enhancing Technologies,” are discussed. Examples of privacy-preserving (and breaking) systems, ranging from smart meters to electronic health records, are used to illustrate the main difficulties of designing such systems.

Keywords

Privacy, Design, Value Sensitive Design, Smart grid

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Abstract

Design has long been employed for regulatory purposes: by ancient civilisations (such as the ancient Egyptian practice of filling in of burial shafts to discourage looting) through to contemporary communities (such as the use by digital media providers of ‘digital rights management’ technology to prevent the unauthorised copying of digital data). But identifying what counts as a ‘regulatory’ purpose, however, is not entirely straightforward, largely due to the notorious lack of clarity concerning the meaning of the term ‘regulation’. Within regulatory studies literature, the use of design for regulatory purposes has not been the subject of extensive and comprehensive analysis, although particular kinds of design technologies have been the focus of considerable scholarly attention. Nevertheless, two important themes can be identified within regulatory scholarship that may be of considerable assistance in interrogating contemporary debates concerning design for regulation: first, analysis of the tools or instruments that may be employed to implement regulatory policy goals, and secondly, debates concerning the legitimacy of regulation in particular contexts, or the legitimacy of particular forms or facets of the regulatory enterprise. Both these themes will be explored in this paper through a discussion of the challenges associated with the effectiveness of design-based approaches to regulation and in the course of examining some of the controversies that have surrounded its use, with a particular focus on the implications of design for various dimensions of responsibility.

In so doing, I will make three arguments. First, I will argue that design can be usefully understood as an instrument for implementing regulatory goals. Secondly, I will suggest that a regulatory perspective provides an illuminating lens for critically examining the intentional use of design to promote specific social outcomes by showing how such a perspective casts considerable light on their implications for political, moral and professional accountability and responsibility. Thirdly, I will suggest that, because design can be employed for regulatory purposes (particularly in the case of harm-mitigation technologies) without any need for external behavioural change on the part of human actors, Julia Black’s definition of regulation as ‘a process involving the sustained and focused attempt to alter the behaviour of others according to defined standards or purposes with the intention of producing a broadly defined outcome or outcomes’ should be refined to enable all design-based instruments and techniques to fall within the sphere of regulatory inquiry, rather than being confined only to those design-based approaches that intentionally seek to alter the behaviour of others.

Keywords

Regulatory instruments, Tools of government, Accountability, Responsibility, Regulation

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Abstract

The responsibility of engineers and designers for the products they design is a common topic in engineering ethics and ethics of technology. However, in this chapter we explore what designing for the value of responsibility could entail. The term “design for the value of responsibility” can be interpreted in (at least) two ways. First, it may be interpreted as a design activity that explicitly takes into account the effect of technological designs on the possibility of users (and others) to assume responsibility or to be responsible. Second, it may refer to a design activity that explicitly affects the allocation of responsibility among the ones operating or using the technology and other affected people. In this chapter, we discuss both interpretations of design for the value of responsibility. In both interpretations, a technological design can be said to affect a person’s responsibility. As there are no explicit methods or approaches to guide design for responsibility, this chapter explores three cases in which design affected responsibility and develops on basis of them design heuristics for design for responsibility. These cases are the alcohol interlock for cars in Sweden, the V-chip for blocking violent television content and developmental podcasting devices in rural Zimbabwe. We conclude by raising some open issues and suggesting future work.

Keywords

Conditions of responsibility, Individual and collective responsibility, Distribution of responsibility, Responsibility as a virtue

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Abstract

Two major methods for achieving safety in engineering design are compared: safety engineering and probabilistic risk analysis. Safety engineering employs simple design principles or rules of thumb such as inherent safety, multiple barriers, and numerical safety margins to reduce the risk of accidents. Probabilistic risk analysis combines the probabilities of individual events in event chains leading to accidents in order to identify design elements in need of improvement and often also to optimize the use of resources. It is proposed that the two methodologies should be seen as complementary rather than as competitors. Probabilistic risk analysis is at its advantage when meaningful probability estimates are available for most of the major events that may contribute to an accident. Safety engineering principles are more suitable to deal with uncertainties that defy quantification. In many design tasks, the combined use of both methodologies is preferable.

Keywords

Design, Risk, Probabilistic risk analysis, Safety factor, Uncertainty, Safety engineering

Abstract

It is the main task of a professional designer to create value for the users of the products, services, and systems they design. In Design for Sustainability, however, designers have a higher level of ambition: additional to a high consumer value, they make sure that designs result in less degradation of our environment, less depletion of materials, and more social equity in our world. The need for a higher level of prosperity for people in developing countries, in combination with the growing population in our world, emphasizes the need for sustainable products and services. Design for Sustainability combines a high customer value with a low level of eco-burden over the life cycle. This chapter summarizes the main current approaches to Design for Sustainability (cradle-to-cradle, Circular Economy, and Biomimicry) and some practical tools and checklists (EcoDesign, the LiDS Wheel, Design for Recycling, and Design for Disassembly) and describes the latest developments in quantitative assessment methods (“Fast Track” Life Cycle Assessment, Eco-efficient Value Creation, and design of Sustainable Product Service Systems). For the quantitative methods, real-life examples are given for design of luxurious products based on cork, packaging design of food products, and Sustainable Product Service System design of sustainable water tourism.

Keywords

Life cycle assessment, Sustainability, Ecodesign, Eco-costs, Value, Product service systems

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Abstract

The relationship between design and trust has recently been a topic of considerable scholarly discussion. This is due to several reasons. First, interpersonal trust is an especially relevant concept in information, communication, and networking technologies, because these technologies are designed to facilitate transactions and exchanges between people. Second, digital information has become ubiquitous and can itself be the object of a trust-like attitude, since people rely on it to meet their expectations under conditions of time and information scarcity. And finally, perhaps as a result of the first two points, designers have started to take on the role of expressly encouraging user trust by incorporating in their designs perceptual and social cues known to increase trust. This chapter explores some of the philosophical issues surrounding trust “by design” and explains how to apply Design for Values to trust.

Keywords

Trust in technology, Technological mediation, Trustworthiness, Ethics of trust, Epistemology of trust

Domains

Abstract

Agricultural biotechnology dates from the last two decades of the twentieth century. It involves the creation of plants and animals with new useful traits by inserting one or more genes taken from other species. New legal possibilities for patenting transgenic organisms and isolated genes have been provided to promote the development of this new technology. The applications of biotechnology raise a whole range of value issues, like consumer and farmer autonomy, respect for intellectual property, environmental sustainability, food security, social justice, and economic growth. Hitherto the field has not yet witnessed any deliberate attempt at value-sensitive design or design for values. The reason is that under the influence of strong commercial motivations, applications have been developed first and foremost with simple agronomic aims in view, such as herbicide tolerance and insect resistance, traits which are based on single genes. The opportunities for value-sensitive design appear to be constrained by the special character of the biological domain. Many desirable traits like drought tolerance are genetically complex traits that cannot be built into organisms by the insertion of one or a few genes. Another problem is that nature tends to fight back, so that insects become immune to insect-resistant crops and weeds become invulnerable to herbicides. This leads to the phenomenon of perishable knowledge, which also calls the so-called patent bargain into question. The possibilities for value-sensitive design will likely increase with synthetic biology, a more advanced form of biotechnology that aims at making biology (more) “easy to engineer.” Practitioners of this new field are acutely aware of the need to proceed in a socially responsible way so as to ensure sufficient societal support. Yet synthetic biologists are currently also engaged in a fundamental debate on whether they will ultimately succeed in tackling biological complexity.

Keywords

Intellectual property, Complex traits, Sustainability, Trade-offs, Perishable knowledge, Synthetic biology

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Abstract

The notion of design for values, or value-sensitive design, is founded on the idea that design principles are related to ethical, moral, social, and political values. In architecture, a general relation between values and design is present throughout the history of the discipline. However, the question then arises which values are related to design principles and how. This chapter examines architecture as a general application domain in which values have been of central concern throughout its history. It departs from the supposition that values are by necessity part of the project of architecture and unravel aspects of these values. These aspects include the distinction between implicit and explicit values, the unexpected effects of design intentions, the distinction between general values and their particular (historical) readings, and perhaps most importantly the life-span of buildings, which often outlasts the value systems they arose from.

Keywords

Values, Ethics of architecture, Design for values, Architecture and morality

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Abstract

Since the end of the Cold War, Western military forces became frequently involved in missions to stabilize conflicts around the world. In those conflicts, the military forces increasingly found themselves operating among the people. The emerging need in military interventions to prevent casualties translated into a range of value-driven military technological developments, such as military robots and nonlethal weapons (NLW). NLWs are characterized by a certain technological and operational design “window” of permissible physiological effect, defined at each end by values: one value is a controlled physiological impact to enforce compliance by targeted individuals and the other value is the prevention of inflicting serious harm of fatality. Robot drones, mine detectors, and sensing devices are employed on the battlefield but are operated at a safe distance by humans. Their deployment serves to decrease casualties and traumatic stress among own military personnel and seeks to enhance efficiency and tactical and operational superiority.

This chapter points out that societal and political implications of designing for values in the military domain are governed by a fundamentally different scheme than is the case in the civil domain. The practical cases examined illustrate how values incorporated in military concept and system designs are exposed to counteraction and annihilation when deployed in real-world operational missions.

Keywords

Nonlethal weapons, Military robots, Military ethics, Designing for values, Value sensitive design

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Abstract

We distinguish the subjectivist value theory, providing the basis for neoclassical economics (NCE) and new institutional economics (NIE), and the social theory of value, underscoring original institutional economics (OIE). In NCE design involves a comparison of the structural characteristics and conduct in a real world market with the theoretically ideal competitive market. If any problems are identified, corrective action should (re)establish competition. NIE would additionally examine the characteristics of the transactions and potential external effects and evaluate the adequacy of the prevailing market institutions. The focus is on designing the right institutions for markets to reveal the subjective values of actors. OIE looks at design in a dynamic, holistic, and systemic way and considers “the market” as one of the possible tools out of many to realize social (moral) values. Individual and common values emerge and are constituted in interaction, being judged and deliberated in their specific context of time and place regarding their consequences for society.

Keywords

Subjectivist value theory, Social theory of value, Neoclassical economics, New institutional economics, Original institutional economics

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Abstract

Values have probably always played a role in engineering design. However, in current practices and design methods, the attention for values in engineering design tends to be implicit and unsystematic. Establishing Design for Values in engineering would require overcoming this situation. This contribution discusses which values play a role in engineering and engineering design, describes existing methods and experiences with Design for Values in engineering, and explores how values can be integrated into engineering design and existing design methods, in particular quality function deployment (QFD). It identifies four challenges for Design for Values in engineering: (1) discovery of the values to be included in engineering design; (2) translation of these values into engineering characteristics; (3) choice among design options that meet different values to different degrees; and (4) verification of whether a design indeed embodies the intended values.

Keywords

Engineering design, Values Design methods, Design for Values, Design for X, QFD

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Abstract

The fashion and textile industry is one of the largest industries in the world producing billions of garments every year with a remarkably low awareness of the moral issues associated with the production and use of garments. After a brief introduction to fashion as a cultural phenomenon, this chapter explains the life cycle of garment production and use, which uses large amounts of energy and water and deploys many toxic chemicals. Globalized production raises many issues around the ethical employment of staff. Design decisions have to be taken throughout the life cycle, but are often highly constrained by the commercial pressures of an industry with very low profit margins. Making moral decision in design is therefore in many cases a selection of the least harmful option. However, the chapter explains how some designers have found business models that allow them to produce garments in a least harmful way. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of the conflicting drivers in design for value in the fashion and textile industry.

Keywords

Fashion and textiles, Values, Sustainability, Ethical production, Ethical consumption

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Abstract

Communities struggle with finding ways for collaboratively exploring the value of healthcare technologies. Currently, a strong emphasis is being placed on the assessment of the costs associated with the health gains (expressed in quality-adjusted life years) that are achieved with these technologies. Following Hannah Arendt, we shall try to argue that such instrumental rationality is misplaced in discovering how technology can help to express human values. It typically reflects a society where processes of design and development, evaluation, and decision making involve separate trajectories and operate distinct from the realm of the lives of humans. We will present an alternative which is deliberative and transformative in nature. Its strengths and limitations will be explored, using the cochlear implant for deaf children as an example.

Keywords

Technology assessment, Values, Dialectic Frame reconstruction, Evaluation as learning

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Abstract

Information and communication technologies (ICT) are becoming pervasive. ICT development has accelerated, and within a few decades its use has expanded from particular work domains to diverse areas of work and everyday life. Consequently, the range of ICT stakeholders expanded from highly trained experts to all kinds of people with varying expertise and abilities. Sometimes, even people, who are not active users, are affected by the surrounding ICT.

Since ICT influences stakeholders’ lives and in particular also their values, the ethical impact of ICT and the active consideration of values throughout design of ICT have become topics for research in several disciplines, including among others computer ethics, social informatics, or human-computer interaction. This chapter provides an overview of the history of ICT; different approaches to investigating, analyzing, and incorporating values in ICT; and practical methods to account for values in the ICT design process.

Keywords

Information and communication technologies, Value-sensitive design, Pervasiveness, Emerging technologies, Design methods

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Abstract

In this chapter, I examine the relationship between institutions and moral or ethical values (I use the terms interchangeably) and, in particular, the manner and extent to which such values are or, at least, ought to be part and parcel of the design of institutions. By institutions I mean organizations and systems of organizations. So a single business corporation is an institution in this sense, and so is a market-based industry comprised of corporations. When designing-in-values to institutions, three dimensions of institutions can be considered, namely, function, structure, and culture. Moreover, there are different (possibly crosscutting) levels:

  • the macro-level (e.g., the industry as a whole),
  • mezzo-level (e.g., a single organization), and the
  • microlevel (e.g., an anti-corruption system within an organization).

Further, there are at least six main sources of motivation to be accommodated, and potentially utilized, in the design process. These are:

  • formal sanctions (within a framework of enforced rules),
  • economic incentives (especially within a competitive market),
  • desire for status and reputation,
  • desire for control over one’s own destiny and (in some cases) power over others,
  • moral motivations, and a
  • miscellaneous assemblage of psychosocial factors, e.g., status quo bias, overconfidence, desire to conform, and irrational desires.

To illustrate and facilitate understanding of designing-in-value to institutions, I will discuss different features of a variety of quite diverse contemporary institutions. The institutions and design features in question are (respectively)

  1. the design and construction of an entire organizational system from the ground up, namely, a compulsory retirement income system (a hybrid public/private sector institution);
  2. the redesign and renovation of an anti-corruption system for existing police organizations (public sector institution);
  3. the design and construction of a reputational index for organizations competing in a market as one element of a broad-based cultural-change process for the industries in question; and
  4. the redesign of disclosure requirements for credit card pricing mechanisms.

Keywords

Institutions, Design for values, Anti-corruption system, Reputational indices

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Abstract

Applications of nanotechnology have the potential to raise fundamentally new ethical questions. Nanotechnology is an enabling technology and therefore a whole array of moral values is at stake. We investigate these values by differentiating with respect to specific applications. We will argue that in the short term, nanotechnology does not pose novel value-laden socio-technical issues, but has the potential to enhance or provide opportunities to address existing issues. We will describe three different attempts to provide a design for safety or sustainability approach, which are specific for nanotechnology. In the long term, nanotechnology does raise new ethical questions, especially with the blurring of category boundaries. Since the current debate on long-term developments is mainly technology assessment oriented in nature, we will suggest how these outcomes can be used for a more design-oriented approach.

Keywords

Cybernetic organism, Enabling technology, Human enhancement, Nanoethics, Nanoscale titanium dioxide

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Abstract

Safety has always been an important criterion for designing nuclear reactors, but in addition to safety, there are at least four other values that play a key role, namely, security (i.e., sabotage and proliferation), sustainability (i.e., environmental impacts, energy resource availability), economic viability (i.e., embarking on new technology and its continuation), as well as intergenerational justice (i.e., what we leave behind for future generations). This chapter reviews the evolution of generations of nuclear reactors (I, II, III, III, and IV) in terms of these values. We argue that the Best Achievable Nuclear Reactor would maximally satisfy all these criteria, but the safest reactor is not always the most sustainable one, while the reactor that best guarantees resource durability could easily compromise safety and security. Since we cannot meet all these criteria simultaneously, choices and trade-offs need to be made. We highlight these choices by discussing three promising future reactor types, namely, the high-temperature reactor pebble-bed module (HTR-PM), the molten salt-cooled reactor (MSR) and the gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR).

Keywords

Safety, Sustainability, Security, Economic viability, Intergenerational justice

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Abstract

A rising trend in software development by public and private organizations is the focus on solutions that combine services (potentially provided by others) into value-added systems. ICT systems based on service-oriented and distributed computing principles require profound changes in the way the software is designed, deployed, and managed. The software that organizations develop and/or use needs to comply with all sorts of values, e.g., legal norms (privacy) or societal values (be environmental friendly), yet no software development methodology currently handles values in the design process (explicitly). Existing “waterfall”-like software development falls short in this new multidimensional field, where approaches are required that can integrate values, functionalities, and behaviors in system design. In this chapter, we introduce the Value-Sensitive Software Development (VSSD) framework as a Design for Values approach to the development of ICT systems. VSSD aims to make the relations between the values, the domain, and the software product explicit, thereby improving maintainability of the software.

Keywords

Software development, Service-oriented architectures, Norms Institutions

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Abstract

In view of current massive water quantity and quality problems as well as shifting social wishes and requirements, the currently dominant water engineering and management approaches need to change. The water domain is indeed the scene of reorientation and transformation, though from a perspective of design for values much remains to be desired. This chapter discusses these matters, investigates present water approaches, and indicates how value considerations have always been implicitly present in such approaches. Three approaches for dealing with water affairs are distinguished: the technical-economic approach, integrated water resources management, and the negotiated approach. In this sequence, value considerations have become increasingly important. In addition to suggesting improvements, we will present a step-by-step plan for a more explicit design for values approach, as the way to move forward in dealing with global water issues.

Keywords

Water problems, Water engineering and management approaches, Revaluing, Step-by-step method

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Handbook of Ethics, Values, and Technological Design

Handbook of
Ethics, Values, and Technological Design;
Sources, Theory, Values and Application Domains

(2015)

Editors:
Jeroen van den Hoven (TU Delft)
Pieter E. Vermaas (TU Delft)
Ibo van de Poel (TU Delft)

Dordrecht, Springer

871 p, 89 illus, 44 illus. in color

DOI10.1007/978-94-007-6994-6
Online ISBN978-94-007-6994-6

As a book
As online reference work